Paramount Communications, Inc. v. Time Incorporated

571 A.2d 1140 (1989)

Quick Summary

Paramount Communications, Inc. (plaintiff) contested the actions of Time Incorporated (defendant) in rejecting a lucrative tender offer in favor of pursuing a strategic acquisition with Warner Brothers (Warner).

The issue was whether Time’s board fulfilled its fiduciary duties in making these decisions. The Supreme Court of Delaware concluded that Time’s board had acted appropriately within its fiduciary duties.

Facts of the Case

Paramount Communications, Inc. (plaintiff), sought to merge with Time Incorporated (defendant), a company considering expansion into the entertainment industry. Time had already pursued and agreed upon a stock-for-stock merger with Warner Brothers (Warner), valuing a long-term strategic partnership that aligned with its vision and ‘Time Culture.’

However, before Time’s stockholders could approve the merger, Paramount made an all-cash tender offer for all outstanding shares of Time at a premium price, which Time’s board rejected, viewing it as a threat to their strategic plans and corporate culture. Instead of accepting Paramount’s offer, Time altered its agreement with Warner from a merger to an acquisition, offering cash for 51 percent of Warner’s shares.

Paramount subsequently raised its offer for Time’s shares, which was again rejected by Time’s board. The dispute escalated to litigation, with Paramount and certain Time shareholders claiming that the actions taken by Time’s board were not in the best interests of the shareholders and violated certain legal duties.

Procedural Posture and History

  1. Paramount Communications, Inc. made a tender offer for all outstanding shares of Time Incorporated.
  2. Time’s board rejected the offer and proceeded with an acquisition plan for Warner.
  3. Paramount and certain Time shareholders filed suits in the Delaware Court of Chancery seeking a preliminary injunction to halt Time’s acquisition of Warner.
  4. The Court of Chancery denied the plaintiffs’ motion, concluding they were unlikely to prevail on the merits.
  5. Plaintiffs appealed to the Supreme Court of Delaware.

I.R.A.C. Format


Whether the Time board’s rejection of Paramount’s tender offer and subsequent acquisition of Warner Brothers were proper exercises of their fiduciary duties under Unocal Corp. v. Mesa Petroleum Co. and Revlon v. MacAndrews & Forbes Holdings, Inc.

Rule of Law

Directors may consider factors beyond immediate shareholder value when responding to a tender offer, including long-term strategic plans and preservation of corporate culture, as established in Unocal Corp. v. Mesa Petroleum Co. Additionally, directors are not necessarily obligated to maximize short-term shareholder value when faced with a change of control as per Revlon v. MacAndrews & Forbes Holdings, Inc.

Reasoning and Analysis

The Delaware Supreme Court applied the Unocal standard, affirming that a board of directors has the authority to reject a tender offer if it perceives it as a threat to the corporation’s policy and effectiveness. The court found that Time’s board reasonably perceived Paramount’s offer as such a threat, given their strategic plan for a long-term partnership with Warner that aligned with their vision for the ‘Time Culture.’

The court also held that under the circumstances of this case, the board’s decision was proportionate and reasonable. Furthermore, the court determined that entering into an initial merger agreement did not trigger Revlon duties to auction the company or maximize immediate shareholder value because there was no change of control.

Therefore, Time’s decision-making process was subject only to business judgment rule analysis, emphasizing the board’s right to prioritize long-term strategy over short-term gains.


The court affirmed the decision of the Court of Chancery, allowing Time to proceed with its acquisition of Warner. It ruled that Time’s board acted within its legal rights and fiduciary duties in rejecting Paramount’s tender offer and pursuing the acquisition of Warner.

Key Takeaways

  1. The Unocal standard allows boards to reject tender offers if they perceive them as threats to corporate policy and effectiveness.
  2. Directors are not obligated to maximize immediate shareholder value according to Revlon when there is no change of control.
  3. The business judgment rule protects directors’ decisions to prioritize long-term strategic interests over short-term shareholder gains.

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