Martin v. Peyton

246 N.Y. 213 (1927)

Quick Summary

Martin (plaintiff) argued against Peyton (defendant) and associates over their financial involvement with KN&K. Their dispute centered on whether the defendants’ loan in exchange for profit sharing constituted them as partners with liability for firm debts.

The Court of Appeals concluded that despite profit sharing, there was no partnership formed; the lenders’ intention and agreement with KN&K did not equate to co-ownership or control of the business. The trial court’s decision was upheld, absolving the lenders from debt liability.

Facts of the Case

Martin (plaintiff) brought a case against Peyton (defendant) and others, who had loaned securities to the struggling brokerage firm Knauth, Nachod & Kuhne (KN&K). The firm’s financial distress was due to poor investments, leading to a transaction where Peyton and other lenders provided a loan of $2,500,000 in securities.

In exchange, they were promised 40 percent of the firm’s profits until the debt was repaid. This arrangement was documented through an agreement, an indenture, and an option. The agreement included several conditions: appointment of two lenders as ‘trustees’ with specific powers and obligations, a fixed draw for KN&K members, and a veto power over certain business decisions for the trustees.

The indenture served as a mortgage on the collateral provided by KN&K, and the option allowed lenders to potentially buy into the firm. Martin argued that this transaction effectively made the lenders partners of KN&K, thus liable for its debts.

Procedural Posture and History

  1. Martin filed a lawsuit against Peyton and other lenders, claiming they became partners in KN&K due to their transaction.
  2. The trial court held that the lenders were not partners of KN&K.
  3. Martin appealed to the Court of Appeals of New York.

I.R.A.C. Format


Whether the transaction between Peyton, other lenders, and KN&K, which involved loaning securities in exchange for a share of profits, created a partnership that would make the lenders liable for the debts of KN&K.

Rule of Law

Partnership results from a contract and is determined by whether parties associate to carry on as co-owners of a business for profit. Sharing profits alone does not establish a partnership; the intent and full scope of the agreement must demonstrate a joint venture for common benefit.

Reasoning and Analysis

The court examined whether the agreement between Peyton, other lenders, and KN&K constituted a partnership under New York law. While acknowledging that receiving a share of profits can signal a partnership, the court emphasized that this alone is not determinative. Instead, it considered the entirety of the relationship structured by the agreement, indenture, and option.

The court noted that provisions allowing for trustees’ oversight and veto power were protective measures rather than indicative of partnership control.

Moreover, the option to buy into the firm did not establish current partnership status. Thus, despite sharing in profits as compensation for their loan, the court found that lenders did not engage in co-ownership or management indicative of a partnership.


The Court of Appeals affirmed the trial court’s decision that Peyton and other lenders were not partners in KN&K and therefore not liable for its debts.

Key Takeaways

  1. A share in profits does not necessarily establish a partnership; the entire agreement and relationship must indicate joint ownership and control of the business.
  2. Protective measures within an agreement to safeguard lenders’ interests are not sufficient to demonstrate a partnership.
  3. The intention of the parties involved is critical in determining whether a partnership exists under New York law.

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