Tilton v. Beecher

59 N.Y. 176 (N.Y. 1874)

Quick Summary

Theodore Tilton (plaintiff) filed a lawsuit against Henry Ward Beecher (defendant), accusing him of committing adultery with Tilton’s wife. Tilton requested details of when and where these acts occurred to prepare his defense.

The issue presented was whether the lower court had the authority to order Beecher to provide these details. The Court of Appeals found that they did have such power and reversed the lower courts’ decisions, remitting the case for consideration on its merits.

Facts of the Case

Theodore Tilton (plaintiff) filed a lawsuit against Henry Ward Beecher (defendant), alleging that Beecher had committed acts of adultery with Tilton’s wife. The complaint specified that these acts took place on October 10, 1868, and on various other occasions before the commencement of the action in August 1874, spanning nearly six years. Tilton sought a court order requiring Beecher to provide a written statement specifying the particular times and places at which he intended to prove the alleged acts of adultery occurred.

Beecher denied the accusations and argued that, to prepare his defense, he required specific details of the alleged incidents to effectively summon and prepare witnesses. The case raised significant questions regarding the provision of particulars in legal pleadings and the extent to which courts can exercise discretion in ordering such details.

Procedural Posture and History

  1. Theodore Tilton filed an application at Special Term requesting the court to order Henry Ward Beecher to deliver a written statement of particulars concerning the alleged acts of adultery.
  2. The Special Term denied the motion on the ground that it had no power to grant such an order and cited other unstated reasons.
  3. Beecher appealed to the General Term of the City Court of Brooklyn, which affirmed the Special Term’s decision by a divided court, standing affirmed by force of statute due to the division.
  4. Beecher then appealed to the Court of Appeals of the State of New York.

I.R.A.C. Format


Whether the court had the power to grant the defendant’s application for a written statement of particulars concerning the alleged acts of adultery.

Rule of Law

The court has the power to order a bill of particulars in all cases, as provided under section 158 of the Code of Procedure, which remains unaltered by section 160. This power is rooted in both statutory law and common law precedents that acknowledge the court’s authority to regulate trials and facilitate justice by preventing surprise and ensuring both parties can adequately prepare their cases.

Reasoning and Analysis

The Court of Appeals scrutinized whether the lower courts had correctly identified their own powers regarding the request for a bill of particulars. The court examined historical practices and legal precedents that supported the issuance of particulars in a wide array of legal actions, including divorce and adultery cases, to prevent trial by surprise and ensure fairness in legal proceedings.

It was determined that section 158 of the Code provided explicit authority for granting bills of particulars and that this authority was not negated or exclusively limited by section 160, which pertains to making pleadings more definite and certain.

The court emphasized that granting particulars is fundamentally about advancing justice and ensuring fair trial preparation. It rejected arguments that particulars would enable tampering with witnesses or were unnecessary because defendants inherently knew details of their alleged actions.

The analysis concluded that if particulars are necessary for a fair trial, courts have both the power and discretion to order them.


The Court of Appeals reversed the orders of both the Special and General Terms, concluding that they had erred in law by determining they lacked power to grant the motion for particulars. The case was remanded back to be heard at Special Term on its merits, allowing for a proper exercise of discretion.

Dissenting Opinions

Judge Allen dissented, suggesting that if the lower court did not have the power to grant the motion, then the order should be affirmed. He contended that since the lower court’s decision was not solely based on a lack of power but also on other unstated reasons, it should be assumed that it was affirmed on its merits at General Term. He argued for dismissal of the appeal.

Key Takeaways

  1. The court has authority under section 158 of the Code to order a bill of particulars in all cases where it is necessary for a fair trial.
  2. The provision of particulars is aimed at ensuring justice and preventing surprise at trial by allowing both parties to prepare adequately.
  3. Legal precedent supports ordering particulars across various types of legal actions, including those involving allegations of adultery or divorce.

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