Jaffee v. Redmond

518 U.S. 1 (1996)

Quick Summary

A dispute arose over whether statements made by a police officer (defendant) to a licensed social worker during therapy sessions were protected from disclosure in court. The main issue centered on recognizing a psychotherapist-patient privilege under Rule 501 of the Federal Rules of Evidence.

The United States Supreme Court affirmed the appellate court’s decision, establishing that such communications are indeed protected, fostering an environment where patients can speak freely without fear of public disclosure.

Facts of the Case

Mary Lu Redmond (defendant), was involved in a fatal shooting incident while serving as a police officer. Following the event, Redmond sought counseling from a licensed social worker. The estate of the deceased, represented by Jaffee (plaintiff), filed a wrongful death lawsuit claiming excessive force.

During the trial, the plaintiff sought to uncover the content of Redmond’s therapy sessions, which Redmond and her therapist refused to disclose, prompting the trial court to instruct the jury they could presume the undisclosed information was unfavorable to Redmond.

The jury ruled in favor of the plaintiff, but the Court of Appeals reversed this decision, recognizing a federal psychotherapist-patient privilege. The case was then brought before the United States Supreme Court to determine the legitimacy of this privilege within the federal evidentiary framework.

Procedural Posture and History

  1. Jaffee, as the administrator of Allen’s estate, initiated a wrongful death suit against Redmond and her employer.
  2. The district court ordered disclosure of therapy session notes, which Redmond refused, leading to a jury instruction that the nondisclosure was without legal justification.
  3. The jury found in favor of Jaffee, awarding damages.
  4. The Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit recognized a federal psychotherapist-patient privilege and reversed the decision.
  5. The case was then escalated to the United States Supreme Court for final adjudication.

I.R.A.C. Format


Whether conversations between a police officer and a licensed social worker during counseling sessions are protected from compelled disclosure under Rule 501 of the Federal Rules of Evidence.

Rule of Law

Confidential communications between a licensed psychotherapist and their patients are protected from compelled disclosure under Rule 501 of the Federal Rules of Evidence.

Reasoning and Analysis

The Supreme Court reasoned that effective psychotherapy relies on confidentiality to foster an environment where patients can speak freely, disclosing sensitive personal information essential for treatment. This need for confidentiality was deemed sufficiently important to outweigh the judicial system’s general requirement to disclose all evidence.

The Court highlighted that all 50 states had recognized some form of psychotherapist-patient privilege, reflecting ‘reason and experience’ that supported its recognition at the federal level.

The Court also determined that extending this privilege to licensed social workers would serve public interests by ensuring mental health treatment is accessible to individuals who might not afford psychiatrists or psychologists. It rejected a balancing test for the privilege’s application, emphasizing the need for certainty in its protection to be effective.


The Supreme Court affirmed the judgment of the Court of Appeals, establishing that the conversations between Officer Redmond and her therapist are protected under Rule 501, thus recognizing a federal psychotherapist-patient privilege.

Dissenting Opinions

Justice Scalia, joined by Chief Justice Rehnquist in part, dissented, arguing that the creation of new privileges should not be taken lightly due to their potential to obstruct justice. Scalia suggested that such matters are better left to legislative action rather than judicial interpretation.

Key Takeaways

  1. Confidential communications between psychotherapists and patients are protected from compelled disclosure in federal courts under Rule 501 of the Federal Rules of Evidence.
  2. The Supreme Court recognized that effective psychotherapy necessitates an environment of trust and confidentiality, which justifies the privilege.
  3. The recognition of this privilege extends to licensed social workers providing psychotherapy, reflecting the practice in most states and addressing accessibility concerns for mental health treatment.
  4. The establishment of this privilege reflects both ‘reason and experience’ and aligns with state legislatures’ policies, thus serving transcendent public interests.

Relevant FAQs of this case


Last updated

Was this case brief helpful?

More Case Briefs in Evidence