Wucherpfennig v. Dooley

351 N.W.2d 443 (1984)

Quick Summary

Donald Wucherpfennig (plaintiff) and Elizabeth Dooley (defendant) were siblings involved in a dispute over the sale of a share in their inherited family farm. Elizabeth offered to sell her share for $200 per acre, but when Donald expressed interest and asked for an exact amount, Elizabeth revoked her offer.

The main issue was whether a contract had been formed by Elizabeth’s offer and Donald’s attorney’s response. The North Dakota Supreme Court concluded there was no valid acceptance and thus no contract, affirming the lower court’s dismissal of Donald’s claim for specific performance.

Facts of the Case

Fred and Harriet Wucherpfennig (deceased) left their family farm to their three children, Donald Wucherpfennig (plaintiff), Elizabeth Dooley (defendant), and Louise Grettum, in undivided interests. The largest share went to Donald. Elizabeth expressed a desire to sell her share to Donald for $200 per acre, contingent on it being a cash transaction and completed quickly.

Donald made financial arrangements to buy the land, but when his attorney requested the exact dollar amount Elizabeth expected, she rescinded her offer instead of providing the amount.

Donald sought specific performance, arguing that his attorney’s communication constituted an acceptance of Elizabeth’s offer, thus forming a contract. The lower court disagreed, finding no valid acceptance and dismissed the claim for specific performance.

Donald then appealed this decision.

Procedural Posture and History

  1. Elizabeth Dooley offered to sell her share of the family farm to Donald Wucherpfennig for $200 per acre.
  2. Donald’s attorney communicated readiness to proceed with the purchase but requested the exact dollar amount expected.
  3. Elizabeth revoked her offer before providing a dollar amount.
  4. Donald filed a lawsuit seeking specific performance or, alternatively, partition of the property.
  5. The district court dismissed the claim for specific performance.
  6. Donald Wucherpfennig appealed to the North Dakota Supreme Court.

I.R.A.C. Format


Whether the probate attorney’s letter constituted a valid acceptance of Elizabeth Dooley’s offer to sell her share of the farm, thereby creating an enforceable contract.

Rule of Law

An acceptance of an offer must be absolute, unequivocal, and unconditional; it must not introduce new terms or conditions. The offer and acceptance must express assent to the same thing in order to form a contract.

Reasoning and Analysis

The court found that the attorney’s letter did not represent an absolute, unequivocal, and unconditional acceptance of Elizabeth’s offer.

Instead, the letter seemed like a step towards negotiation rather than final agreement. It indicated readiness to proceed but asked for more information on Elizabeth’s expected compensation.

This request for further details suggested that there was no mutual assent to contract terms.

Additionally, Donald’s own testimony implied that he knew Elizabeth expected more than what he was willing to pay and that she likely would not have accepted his calculation of the price.

Therefore, it was clear that there was no mutual understanding or agreement on the price of the land between Donald and Elizabeth before she revoked her offer.


The North Dakota Supreme Court affirmed the district court’s judgment, stating that there was no valid acceptance of Elizabeth’s offer before she revoked it, and therefore no contract had been formed between the parties.

Key Takeaways

  1. An offer must be accepted absolutely, unequivocally, and unconditionally to form a contract.
  2. A valid contract requires mutual assent to the same terms by both parties involved.
  3. A request for additional information or clarification in response to an offer typically indicates ongoing negotiations rather than an acceptance.

Relevant FAQs of this case

What constitutes a valid acceptance in contract law?

A valid acceptance in contract law is an unequivocal and unqualified assent to the terms of the offer. It must mirror the offer completely without modifications or conditions, signaling the accepting party’s agreement to be bound by the terms proposed by the offeror.

  • For example: If Ann offers to sell her bicycle to Ben for $100 and Ben responds, ‘I accept your offer to buy the bicycle for $100,’ this is a valid acceptance. However, if Ben says, ‘I accept if you include a helmet,’ this is not a valid acceptance but a counteroffer because it introduces a new term.

How do courts determine whether mutual assent has been achieved in forming a contract?

Courts determine mutual assent by looking for a meeting of the minds between the parties on all material terms, signifying they both understand and agree to those terms. Evidence of communications between parties is reviewed to discern if there was mutual recognition and consent to the contract’s essentials.

  • For example: If Carla offers to lease her apartment to Dan for $800 per month and Dan replies, ‘Agreed, I will move in next week,’ the court would likely find mutual assent as both parties have agreed on critical terms like price and tenancy commencement.

What is the legal effect of revocation of an offer in contract negotiations?

The revocation of an offer terminates the offeree’s power to accept it, effectively ending negotiations unless a new offer is made. The revocation must be communicated to the offeree before they have accepted the original offer. Otherwise, it has no effect.

  • For example: Emily offers to sell her guitar to Frank for $200. Before Frank can say ‘I accept,’ Emily withdraws her offer. Since Frank did not accept before Emily revoked, there is no contract, and he cannot force her to sell him the guitar at that price.
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