Verni v. Cleveland Chiropractic College

212 S.W.3d 150 (2007)

Quick Summary

Leonard Verni (plaintiff) pursued legal action against Cleveland Chiropractic College and Dr. Aleksandr Makarov (defendants) after being dismissed for misconduct. He claimed entitlements as a third-party beneficiary of Makarov’s employment contract and alleged fraudulent misrepresentation by the college regarding its disciplinary procedures.

The dispute focused on whether Verni could enforce the contract and if he had relied on misrepresented due process procedures. The Missouri Supreme Court concluded that Verni was not an intended beneficiary of Makarov’s contract and had not demonstrated reliance on false representations by the college.

Facts of the Case

Leonard Verni (plaintiff) was a student at Cleveland Chiropractic College, pursuing his studies in chiropractic medicine. Dr. Aleksandr Makarov (defendant), an employee of the college, was responsible for teaching Verni in a dermatology course. The conflict arose when Verni was accused and subsequently dismissed from the college for allegedly distributing advance copies of an exam from Makarov’s course. Verni contended that Dr. Makarov had breached his employment contract by not treating him with ‘courtesy, respect, fairness and professionalism’ as outlined in the faculty handbook, a document Verni believed he was entitled to benefit from as a student.

Verni’s dismissal was based on the college’s determination that he had engaged in academic misconduct, specifically through the buying or selling of academic evaluation materials prior to their administration, a violation detailed in the college’s handbook. Despite being informed of his right to appeal the decision through the college’s ‘due process’ procedures also outlined in the student handbook, Verni’s appeal was unsuccessful, leading him to file the present lawsuit against both Cleveland Chiropractic College and Dr. Makarov.

Procedural Posture and History

  1. Leonard Verni was dismissed from Cleveland Chiropractic College following allegations of academic misconduct.
  2. Verni exhausted the college’s internal appeal procedures without success.
  3. He subsequently filed a lawsuit against Cleveland Chiropractic College and Dr. Aleksandr Makarov.
  4. The trial resulted in a verdict in favor of Verni on the fraudulent misrepresentation claim against Cleveland, awarding $20,000 in damages.
  5. The jury also ruled against Dr. Makarov on the breach of contract claim, awarding Verni $10,000.
  6. Cleveland’s motion for judgment notwithstanding the verdict led to the set-aside of the verdict on fraudulent misrepresentation.
  7. Verni appealed the judgment regarding damages and the set-aside verdict, while Dr. Makarov cross-appealed on the breach of contract claim.

I.R.A.C. Format


  • Whether Leonard Verni (plaintiff) has standing as a third-party beneficiary to enforce an employment contract between Dr. Aleksandr Makarov and Cleveland Chiropractic College (defendants).
  • Whether Verni made a submissible case of fraudulent misrepresentation against the college concerning its due process procedures.

Rule of Law

Only parties to a contract and any third-party beneficiaries with a clearly expressed intent to benefit from that contract have standing to enforce it. Furthermore, in cases of alleged fraudulent misrepresentation, a plaintiff must establish reliance on false representations as an essential element for recovery.

Reasoning and Analysis

Dr. Makarov and Cleveland revealed no clear intent to benefit Verni or any class of students directly; thus, Verni’s status as a third-party beneficiary was not established.

The contract’s language did not specify any duty to benefit students, making Verni merely an incidental beneficiary, which is insufficient for third-party beneficiary standing.

Regarding fraudulent misrepresentation, Verni could not demonstrate that he had acted upon false representations made by Cleveland concerning its appeal procedures.

Despite his claims, evidence showed that Verni did not adequately prepare for or participate in the appeal hearing as he was entitled to under the procedures outlined by the college. Therefore, he failed to prove reliance on these representations.


The Missouri Supreme Court reversed the judgment against Dr. Makarov on the breach of contract claim due to Verni’s lack of third-party beneficiary status and affirmed the judgment notwithstanding the verdict on the fraudulent misrepresentation claim against Cleveland because Verni did not establish reliance on false representations.

Key Takeaways

  1. Verni lacked standing as a third-party beneficiary because the contract did not clearly express intent to benefit him or any student class.
  2. To succeed in a claim of fraudulent misrepresentation, actual reliance on the false statements must be proven, which Verni failed to do.

Relevant FAQs of this case

What differentiates a third-party beneficiary with rights to enforce a contract from an incidental beneficiary?

A third-party beneficiary entitled to enforce a contract must be explicitly mentioned or implied as intended to benefit from the agreement by the contracting parties. Incidental beneficiaries, on the other hand, gain no enforcement rights because they benefit by chance and not by the clear directional intent of the contracting parties.

  • For example: If a musician contracts with a venue for a concert mainly to entertain fans (third-party beneficiaries), they can claim damages if the concert is canceled without cause. However, if a nearby parking garage incidentally profits from the event, they cannot claim lost revenue as they are incidental beneficiaries.

In what scenarios can a plaintiff successfully prove fraudulent misrepresentation?

To prove fraudulent misrepresentation, a plaintiff must show that they reasonably relied on false statements made by the defendant and that this reliance led to damages. There must be evidence of the defendant’s knowledge that the statements were false when made, with the intention to deceive.

  • For example: If a real estate agent sells a property falsely claiming it has no history of flooding, and the buyer later incurs flood damage costs, the buyer could prove fraudulent misrepresentation if they relied on these false statements when purchasing.

How do courts determine third-party beneficiary status when the contract language is ambiguous?

Courts often look for evidence of the original parties’ intent, examining factors such as the circumstances surrounding the contract, any direct references to the third party, and the conduct of the contractual parties. They consider if conferring benefit was a motivating factor for entering into the agreement.

  • For example: If parents sign a tuition payment contract with a private school and the agreement ambiguously references educational quality standards, their child may be seen as an intended beneficiary entitled to enforce these standards because providing education is clearly central to the purpose of the contract.
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