Spurlin v. General Motors Corp.

528 F.2d 612 (1976)

Quick Summary

Spurlin (plaintiff) and other children involved in a school bus crash sued General Motors (defendant) for negligence in design and maintenance instructions of the bus’s braking system. The jury ruled in favor of Spurlin, but on appeal, General Motors argued that evidence did not support this decision.

The appellate court held that there was substantial evidence supporting the jury’s findings and reversed the trial court’s decision for a new trial, reinstating the original verdict for Spurlin.

Facts of the Case

In April 1968, a school bus designed by General Motors (defendant) encountered a tragic accident in Morgan County, Alabama, leading to the death of two children and injuries to twenty-two. The cause was determined to be a failure in the bus’s brake system.

Represented by their parents, the affected children (plaintiffs) filed suit against General Motors, arguing that the company was negligent in designing the braking system and failed to provide adequate maintenance instructions. The jury originally sided with the plaintiffs, awarding significant damages.

However, General Motors challenged the verdict, seeking a judgment notwithstanding the verdict or a new trial, claiming the evidence did not support the jury’s decision. The trial court agreed with General Motors, setting aside the jury’s verdict and granting a new trial, prompting an appeal from the children.

Procedural Posture and History

  1. The plaintiffs filed negligence and wrongful death claims against General Motors after a school bus crash.
  2. A jury found in favor of the plaintiffs, awarding damages.
  3. General Motors sought a judgment notwithstanding the verdict or a new trial, claiming insufficient evidence.
  4. The trial court set aside the verdict and granted a new trial.
  5. The plaintiffs appealed the decision to the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit.

I.R.A.C. Format


Whether General Motors was negligent in designing the school bus’s braking system and if the jury’s verdict was supported by substantial evidence.

Rule of Law

The court applies a standard of review that considers all evidence in favor of the non-movant, determining if there is substantial evidence that reasonable minds could reach different conclusions. The manufacturer has a duty to design a reasonably safe product and warn of its proper maintenance.

Reasoning and Analysis

The appellate court reviewed all submitted evidence under the most favorable light to the plaintiffs. Expert testimony regarding the inherent dangers of the single hydraulic braking system and the absence of an effective emergency brake contributed to a finding that General Motors may have breached its duty as a manufacturer.

Additionally, evidence contradicted General Motors’ defense that brake fluid leakage was due to negligence by school board officials. Regarding proximate cause, the court found that sufficient evidence was presented for a jury to conclude that General Motors’ negligence could foreseeably result in inadequate maintenance practices by the school board.

Therefore, it was concluded that the district court erred in overturning the jury’s verdict and granting a new trial as there was enough evidence for reasonable minds to differ on key issues.


The appellate court reversed the trial court’s grant of judgment notwithstanding the verdict and new trial. The case was remanded with instructions to enter judgment based on the original jury verdict in favor of the plaintiffs.

Key Takeaways

  1. A manufacturer has a duty to create products that are safe for their intended use and to provide proper maintenance instructions.
  2. Judgment notwithstanding the verdict should only be granted when there is a lack of substantial evidence supporting the jury’s findings.
  3. The appellate court has the authority to reverse a new trial order if it finds that the jury’s verdict was supported by substantial evidence and not against the great weight of evidence.

Relevant FAQs of this case

What constitutes a 'reasonably safe' product under product liability law?

Under product liability law, a ‘reasonably safe’ product is one that is designed to prevent foreseeable risks of harm when used in the intended or reasonably foreseeable manner. Manufacturers have a duty to ensure that design, manufacturing, and warning defects are minimized or eliminated.

  • For example: A car manufacturer must design seat belts that adequately protect passengers in the event of a collision.

How does the standard of evidence in civil cases ('substantial evidence') differ from that in criminal cases ('beyond reasonable doubt')?

In civil cases, ‘substantial evidence’ means that a reasonable mind could accept the evidence as adequate to support the conclusion, which is a lower threshold than the ‘beyond reasonable doubt’ standard in criminal cases. The latter requires such a high level of proof that there would be no reasonable doubt left in the mind of a rational individual regarding the defendant’s guilt.

  • For example: To prevail in a civil negligence case, it is sufficient to show substantial likelihood that the defendant breached their duty, whereas a criminal conviction for theft requires eliminating any reasonable doubt that the person unlawfully took property.

What is the role of expert testimony in establishing liability in negligence cases?

Expert testimony in negligence cases provides specialized knowledge or opinions that can help establish whether there was a deviation from industry standards or norms, which is essential for proving breach of duty. The expert’s analysis supports an argument about whether the defendant met their duty of care to avoid causing harm.

  • For example: In a medical malpractice case, an expert doctor may testify about the appropriate standard of care expected during surgery and whether it was met by the defendant surgeon.


Last updated

Was this case brief helpful?

More Case Briefs in Civil Procedure