Rowland v. Christian

443 P.2d 561 (1968)

Quick Summary

James Rowland (plaintiff) was injured at Nancy Christian’s (defendant) home due to a known defective bathroom fixture. Christian had previously failed to warn him or repair the defect. Rowland sued for negligence.

The trial court granted summary judgment for Christian based on Rowland’s status as a social guest. The Supreme Court of California reversed this decision, rejecting rigid land possessor liability categories and focusing on standard negligence principles instead.

Facts of the Case

James Rowland (plaintiff) was invited to the home of Nancy Christian (defendant). While there, Rowland severely injured his hand when a sink fixture in Christian’s bathroom broke off. Christian knew about the crack in the fixture two weeks prior and had requested her landlord to fix it but failed to warn Rowland of the potential danger.

Rowland sued Christian for his injuries, arguing that she was negligent in not warning him about the dangerous condition of the bathroom fixture. The trial court initially granted summary judgment for Christian, stating that Rowland, as a social guest, could not recover due to assumptions of risk and contributory negligence.

Procedural Posture and History

  1. Rowland sustained injuries and incurred various expenses due to the incident.
  2. Rowland filed a lawsuit against Christian for negligence.
  3. The trial court granted summary judgment for Christian, citing Rowland’s status as a social guest.
  4. Rowland appealed the summary judgment to the Supreme Court of California.

I.R.A.C. Format


Whether the trial court was correct in granting summary judgment for Christian based on the doctrines of assumption of risk and contributory negligence, considering Rowland’s status as a social guest.

Rule of Law

Under Section 1714 of the Civil Code, every person is responsible for injuries caused to another by their lack of ordinary care or skill in managing their property, barring exceptions clearly supported by public policy.

Reasoning and Analysis

The Supreme Court of California emphasized that the process for summary judgment is drastic and should be used with caution. The Court noted that it should only be granted if the moving party’s affidavits would suffice to sustain a judgment in their favor. In this case, Christian’s affidavit did not show that the defect in the faucet was obvious or nonconcealed.

The Court also discussed the evolution of liability principles for land possessors, moving towards a standard of reasonable care under all circumstances rather than rigid classifications based on the plaintiff’s status as a trespasser, licensee, or invitee.

The Court concluded that these traditional classifications no longer reflect modern societal values or legal principles. Instead, it held that liability should be determined by whether a person has acted as a reasonable person managing their property, considering the probability of injury to others.


The Supreme Court of California reversed the trial court’s summary judgment, holding that Christian could potentially be liable for negligence based on the facts assumed for summary judgment purposes.

Dissenting Opinions

Justice Burke dissented, arguing that the traditional distinctions between trespassers, licensees, and invitees provide a stable and predictable framework for determining duty and liability. He expressed concern that abandoning these clear categories could lead to unlimited and unpredictable liability for homeowners and land possessors.

Key Takeaways

  1. The Supreme Court of California emphasizes caution in granting summary judgments and requires conclusive evidence from moving parties.
  2. The court moved away from traditional land possessor liability categories, adopting a standard based on reasonable care under all circumstances.
  3. Justice Burke’s dissent highlights concern over the potential unpredictability of liability without traditional classifications.

Relevant FAQs of this case

What are the factors considered in establishing a duty of care in negligence cases?

A duty of care is established based on the relationship between the parties and the foreseeability of harm. Courts consider the likelihood of injury, the magnitude of the burden to prevent harm, and the consequences of placing that burden upon the defendant.

  • For example: A business owner must ensure that walkways are clear and safe for customers since it’s foreseeable that an obstruction could cause someone to trip and fall.

How do changes in societal values influence the evolution of legal principles?

Legal principles evolve as courts interpret laws to align with current societal values and norms, often expanding or contracting the rights and duties individuals owe to each other.

  • For example: The transition from strict liability toward comparative negligence in tort law reflects a societal shift towards fairness by apportioning responsibility based on each party’s degree of fault.

Why might rigid classifications of entrants to property (trespasser, licensee, invitee) be considered inadequate for determining liability?

Rigid classifications may not accurately take into account the various circumstances and nuances of each case or provide fair outcomes, prompting courts to apply a more flexible standard that considers reasonableness and foreseeability.

  • For example: A homeowner may be held liable for injuries to a trespassing child if the injury was foreseeable and reasonable steps to prevent injury were not taken, despite the child’s unauthorized presence.


Last updated

Was this case brief helpful?

More Case Briefs in Torts