Riley v. State

60 P.3d 204 (2002)

Quick Summary

Richard Riley (defendant) and Edward Portalla were implicated in a shooting at a bonfire, resulting in serious injuries to two individuals.

The core issue revolved around the mental state required for accomplice liability in first-degree assault charges, as it was unclear which defendant’s gunfire caused the injuries.

The Court of Appeals of Alaska upheld Riley’s conviction as an accomplice after determining that the jury instructions were not plainly erroneous and reinterpreting the law of complicity from Echols v. State.

Facts of the Case

Richard Riley (defendant) and Edward Portalla engaged in a dangerous and violent act when they fired gunshots into a group of people assembled around a bonfire near Fairbanks. This reckless behavior resulted in serious injuries to two individuals. Following this incident, both Riley and Portalla were indicted on multiple counts of assault.

The specific charges included two counts of first-degree assault, which is defined as recklessly causing serious physical injury using a dangerous weapon. The challenge for the State during the trial was the inability to conclusively determine whose bullets caused the injuries due to inconclusive ballistic evidence.

As a result, the prosecution could not definitively attribute the wounding shots to either Riley or Portalla. Consequently, the jury was instructed they could convict Riley if they found he either directly fired the shots or if he was an accomplice to Portalla by aiding and abetting in the commission of the assault. Ultimately, Riley was found guilty as an accomplice for both counts of first-degree assault.

Procedural Posture and History

  1. Richard Riley and Edward Portalla were charged with two counts of first-degree assault and six counts of third-degree assault.
  2. The State’s prosecution faced difficulty in proving which defendant’s weapon caused the victims’ injuries.
  3. Riley was convicted as an accomplice on both counts of first-degree assault.
  4. Riley appealed his convictions, challenging the jury instructions on accomplice liability.

I.R.A.C. Format


Whether the jury instructions on accomplice liability were flawed because they did not require evidence that Riley had the intention to aid and abet Portalla in inflicting serious physical injury.

Rule of Law

The rule of law in question addresses the mental state required for accomplice liability. Specifically, it considers whether an accomplice must share the principal’s intent regarding the result of their actions, particularly in cases involving reckless behavior resulting in serious injury.

Reasoning and Analysis

The Court of Appeals of Alaska scrutinized the jury instructions given during Riley’s trial. They examined whether these instructions properly conveyed the mental state required for establishing accomplice liability. The court considered precedent from Echols v. State, which held that an accomplice must have an intentional mental state regarding the prohibited result, rather than merely acting recklessly.

However, Riley did not object to the jury instructions during his trial, so his appeal had to demonstrate plain error. The court concluded that the jury instruction did not constitute plain error as it was not obviously incorrect but potentially ambiguous. Furthermore, any ambiguity was addressed through closing arguments made by both parties.

Ultimately, the court decided to reassess the Echols ruling and determined that it had misstated the law of complicity. They clarified that an individual could be held accountable for actions leading to unintended consequences if they acted with reckless disregard for human life or safety.


The Court of Appeals of Alaska upheld Riley’s convictions for first-degree assault, concluding that the jury instructions on accomplice liability were not plainly erroneous and that, under a correct interpretation of the law, Riley could be held accountable for his role in the assaults.

Key Takeaways

  1. An accomplice can be convicted of an unintended result like serious physical injury if they acted with reckless disregard for human life or safety.
  2. Jury instructions are considered plainly erroneous only if they are clearly incorrect; potential ambiguities can be cured by party arguments.
  3. The Echols ruling was reassessed and corrected by the Court of Appeals of Alaska to align with common-law principles of complicity.

Relevant FAQs of this case

What constitutes accomplice liability in a criminal act?

Accomplice liability arises when an individual knowingly, intentionally, or recklessly aids, encourages, or assists the principal offender in committing a crime. The accomplice’s mental state must align with that required for committing the offense itself.

  • For example: If Alex acts as a lookout while Jamie robs a store, knowing the intent of the robbery, Alex could be charged with accomplice liability even though he never entered the store.

How does recklessness differ from other mental states in criminal law?

In criminal law, recklessness involves consciously disregarding a substantial and unjustifiable risk that a particular harmful result will occur, differing from intentionality and negligence. Recklessness requires knowledge of the risk and a gross deviation from the standard of conduct that a law-abiding person would observe.

  • For example: Shooting into a crowd is reckless because it knowingly ignores the high risk of injuring someone, unlike negligence, which would not involve awareness of the risk.

How do courts cure potential ambiguities in jury instructions?

Courts can address ambiguities in jury instructions through supplemental instructions or clarifications if brought to attention during the trial. Alternatively, party arguments may also resolve uncertainties by guiding jurors on how to interpret and apply the instructions to the facts presented.

  • For example: If a jury is uncertain about the definition of ‘reckless behavior,’ the judge may provide additional guidance on what constitutes recklessness or allow attorneys during closing arguments to clarify this concept via examples pertinent to the case.


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