Potter v. Firestone Tire & Rubber Co.

863 P.2d 795 (1993)

Quick Summary

Frank Potter et al. (plaintiffs) sued Firestone Tire and Rubber Company (defendant) after ingesting water contaminated with carcinogens from Firestone’s waste disposal at an unsuitable landfill. They claimed emotional distress over the fear of cancer and sought damages without showing current physical injuries.

The Supreme Court of California ruled that damages for fear of cancer are only awarded if cancer is more likely than not to occur from such exposure unless the defendant’s actions were particularly egregious.

The court also allowed for future medical monitoring costs under specific conditions.

Facts of the Case

Frank Potter et al. (plaintiffs), owned property near a landfill where Firestone Tire and Rubber Company (defendant) disposed of its industrial waste.

Firestone initially followed regulations by disposing of toxic substances in authorized ‘Class I’ landfills, but later shifted to using ‘Class II’ landfills, which were not equipped to handle hazardous waste and posed a risk of groundwater contamination. As a result, carcinogens contaminated the groundwater near the Class II landfills, which the plaintiffs ingested, leading them to file a lawsuit against Firestone.

The plaintiffs feared developing cancer due to the toxic exposure but had not yet exhibited any physical injuries. They sought damages for their emotional distress and the cost of future medical monitoring.

Procedural Posture and History

  1. The plaintiffs brought a lawsuit against Firestone alleging negligence, negligent and intentional infliction of emotional distress, and strict liability for ultrahazardous activity.
  2. The trial court found in favor of the plaintiffs, awarding substantial damages for fear of cancer, medical monitoring costs, psychiatric illness, and punitive damages.
  3. Firestone appealed the decision, leading to an affirmation by the appellate court on most grounds except for the medical monitoring costs award.
  4. Firestone then appealed to the Supreme Court of California.

I.R.A.C. Format


  • Whether emotional distress caused by fear of cancer from toxic exposure is compensable in a negligence action absent physical injury.
  • Whether future medical monitoring costs are recoverable without a present physical injury or illness.

Rule of Law

Damages for emotional distress due to fear of cancer in negligence actions are recoverable only if the plaintiff can demonstrate that it is more likely than not that they will develop cancer because of exposure. An exception exists if the defendant’s conduct was oppressive, fraudulent, or malicious. Future medical monitoring costs are compensable with proof of a significant increase in risk due to exposure.

Reasoning and Analysis

The court considered the legitimacy of awarding damages for fear of cancer absent physical injury. It concluded that absent physical harm, such damages are only recoverable if there is corroborated medical or scientific opinion indicating a probable likelihood of developing cancer due to exposure.

An exception was made for cases involving egregious conduct by the defendant amounting to ‘oppression, fraud, or malice.’ The court also determined that Christensen v. Superior Court precluded liability for intentional infliction of emotional distress unless Firestone’s conduct was directed at plaintiffs with knowledge they would suffer severe emotional distress.

For medical monitoring costs, the court held these costs are compensable if future monitoring is a reasonably certain consequence of toxic exposure and is reasonable based on expert testimony.


The Supreme Court of California established that fear of cancer damages in negligence cases require a showing that cancer is more likely than not to develop due to toxic exposure unless the defendant’s conduct was oppressive, fraudulent, or malicious. It also set guidelines for the recovery of medical monitoring costs and applied comparative fault principles regarding the plaintiff’s smoking habits.

Key Takeaways

  1. Damages for fear of cancer require proof that it is more likely than not that cancer will develop due to exposure unless the defendant’s conduct was egregious.
  2. Medical monitoring costs can be awarded if there is a significant increase in risk and monitoring is reasonable and necessary.
  3. The case distinguishes between ordinary negligent conduct and conduct that amounts to ‘oppression, fraud, or malice’ for the purpose of awarding damages.

Relevant FAQs of this case

What standards must be met for emotional distress damages to be awarded absent physical harm?

Emotional distress damages without physical injury are awarded if the distress is a proximate result of a wrongful act, and the suffering is sufficiently substantial and enduring. Emotional distress must be evidenced by an impact or consequence that seriously disrupts the plaintiff’s psychological stability.

  • For example: Witnessing a traumatic event such as a family member’s serious accident can warrant emotional distress damages even if the observer wasn’t physically harmed, assuming the shock is severe and results in long-term psychological effects.

Under what circumstances are future medical monitoring costs recoverable in tort law?

Future medical monitoring costs are recoverable when exposure to hazardous substances significantly increases the risk of developing a latent disease and there is a need for specific diagnostic testing to monitor for the disease. It must be shown that early detection through monitoring will benefit the plaintiff medically.

  • For example: A chemical plant leak exposes a nearby community to asbestos, raising their risk of mesothelioma. Regular CT scans to detect early signs of mesothelioma are compensable as they could improve prognosis through early intervention.

What is required to prove negligent infliction of emotional distress?

To prove negligent infliction of emotional distress, a plaintiff must show that the defendant breached a duty of care, which caused foreseeable emotional distress. There must be a close connection between the breach and the emotional suffering, which should be verifiable and significant.

  • For example: If a day care center negligently allows a child to wander off premises and get lost, causing parents severe anxiety and trauma until the child is found, this may result in liability for negligent infliction of emotional distress.


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