Pittsburgh-Des Moines Steel Co. v. Brookhaven Manor Water Co.

532 F.2d 572 (1976)

Quick Summary

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Pittsburgh-Des Moines Steel Co. (plaintiff) and Brookhaven Manor Water Co. (defendant) entered into a contract for the construction of a steel water tank. PMD stopped work and sued Brookhaven for not providing financial assurances outside their agreement. Brookhaven counterclaimed for damages due to PMD stopping work.

The main issue was whether Brookhaven breached the contract by not giving financial assurances, and whether the district court correctly awarded damages to Brookhaven. The appeals court affirmed the lower court’s ruling, stating PMD’s demands were outside the contractual terms and Brookhaven was entitled to damages.

Facts of the Case

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Pittsburgh-Des Moines Steel Co. (plaintiff), a company specializing in steel products, agreed to build a steel water tank for Brookhaven Manor Water Co. (defendant), for $175,000.

The agreement originally called for progress payments, but was later revised so the full payment would be due within 30 days after the tank’s completion. However, PMD became concerned about Brookhaven’s ability to pay and requested written assurance that the full amount would be held in escrow, which was not a condition of their contract.

Brookhaven did not provide this assurance, leading PMD to halt construction and sue for repudiation of contract.

Brookhaven counterclaimed for damages due to PMD’s cessation of work. The district court ruled in favor of Brookhaven, prompting PMD to appeal the decision.

Procedural Posture and History

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  1. PMD submitted a proposal to Brookhaven for constructing a steel water tank.
  2. Brookhaven and PMD modified the payment terms of the proposal and entered into a contract.
  3. PMD requested written assurance from Brookhaven regarding the availability of funds, which was not provided.
  4. PMD ceased performance and filed a lawsuit against Brookhaven for repudiation of contract.
  5. Brookhaven counterclaimed for breach of contract.
  6. The district court awarded damages to Brookhaven.
  7. PMD appealed the district court’s decision.

I.R.A.C. Format


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Whether Brookhaven improperly repudiated the contract by failing to provide written assurances to PMD, and whether the district court erred in its judgment and assessment of damages against PMD.

Rule of Law

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The Uniform Commercial Code (UCC) Section 2-609 allows a party to request adequate assurance of performance when reasonable grounds for insecurity arise with respect to the other party’s performance. The UCC also defines ‘goods’ broadly to include specially manufactured goods that are movable at the time of identification to the contract for sale.

Reasoning and Analysis

Reasoning Icon

The court found that PMD’s request for escrow assurance went beyond what was required by their contract with Brookhaven and that there were no reasonable grounds or changes in Brookhaven’s financial situation that would justify such insecurity under UCC Section 2-609.

The appeals court agreed with the district court that PMD’s actions amounted to an anticipatory repudiation of the contract, which allowed Brookhaven to suspend its own performance and seek damages.

Additionally, the court upheld the district court’s damage assessment, rejecting PMD’s contention that Brookhaven had not shown a specific reduction in property value due to the presence of the tank foundation.


Conclusion Icon

The appeals court affirmed the district court’s decision, holding that PMD was not entitled to demand escrow assurance under UCC Section 2-609 and that Brookhaven was entitled to damages resulting from PMD’s repudiation of the contract.

Key Takeaways

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  1. The UCC Section 2-609 requires reasonable grounds for a party’s insecurity about performance for it to demand assurance.
  2. Contractual agreements are binding, and parties cannot unilaterally impose conditions not stipulated in the initial contract.
  3. Anticipatory repudiation occurs when one party demonstrates an intent not to perform their contractual obligations, justifying suspension of performance by the other party.

Relevant FAQs of this case

What legal protections exist when a party to a contract feels insecure about the other's performance?

Under the Uniform Commercial Code, a party can demand ‘adequate assurance of performance’ if there are reasonable grounds for insecurity about the other party’s ability to fulfill their contractual obligations. This mechanism aims to protect concerned parties before an actual breach occurs, by allowing them to seek confirmation that the contract will be honored.

  • For example: A supplier may ask a retailer for assurance in the form of a credit report or payment history if the retailer’s recent late payments cast doubt on future fulfilments.

How does anticipatory repudiation impact contractual obligations?

Anticipatory repudiation occurs when one party clearly indicates that they will not perform their contractual duties in the future. Upon proper recognition of anticipatory repudiation, the non-breaching party is relieved from their obligation to perform and can immediately pursue remedies for breach, including damages or seeking performance through alternative means.

  • For example: If a contractor informs a homeowner that they will not start a renovation project despite a signed contract, the homeowner may hire another contractor without waiting for the project’s scheduled start date.

How crucial is adherence to explicit contract terms regarding modification and assurance demands?

Adherence to explicit terms is critical in contract law. Any modifications or demands for additional assurances must be consistent with existing contractual agreements. Imposing unilateral conditions not stipulated within the original contract can constitute a breach. Both parties must agree to any amendments for those changes to be legally binding.

  • For example: If a lease agreement allows for renovations with landlord consent, a tenant cannot unilaterally decide to renovate without such consent — doing so would violate explicit contract terms and could lead to legal action.
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