Palsgraf v. Long Island R.R.

248 N.Y. 339, 162 N.E. 99 (1928)

Quick Summary

Helen Palsgraf (plaintiff) sustained injuries while on a train platform due to an unexpected explosion caused by railroad employees assisting a man with a hidden package of fireworks. The Long Island Railroad Company (defendant) was initially found liable for negligence.

The main issue was whether unforeseeable events leading to Palsgraf’s injury could hold the railroad liable. The Court concluded that there was no negligence towards Palsgraf because the harm was not foreseeable, thus reversing previous judgments and dismissing her case.

Facts of the Case

Helen Palsgraf (plaintiff) was waiting for a train on the platform of the Long Island Railroad (defendant) when a series of events unfolded leading to her injury.

Two men were rushing to catch a moving train; one of them, carrying a package of fireworks, was aided by railroad employees but dropped the package, which exploded upon hitting the tracks. The explosion caused scales at the other end of the platform to fall and injure Palsgraf.

The package’s contents were not known to be dangerous by those present, including the railroad employees. Palsgraf sued the railroad for negligence, claiming her injuries were a direct result of their employees’ actions.

Procedural Posture and History

  1. Palsgraf brought a negligence suit against the Long Island Railroad Company in trial court.
  2. The trial court ruled in favor of Palsgraf, awarding her damages for her injuries.
  3. The railroad appealed to the Appellate Division, which affirmed the trial court’s judgment in favor of Palsgraf.
  4. The railroad further appealed to the New York Court of Appeals, arguing that their employees’ actions did not constitute negligence towards Palsgraf.

I.R.A.C. Format


Whether the Long Island Railroad Company can be held liable for negligence resulting in injury to Palsgraf when the injury was caused by unforeseen events initiated by the actions of its employees.

Rule of Law

Negligence is defined as a failure to observe a duty of care which results in harm to another individual. For an action to be considered negligent, there must be a foreseeable risk to a legally protected interest.

‘Negligence is not actionable unless it involves the invasion of a legally protected interest, the violation of a right.’ (Pollock, Torts [11th ed.], p. 455; Martin v. Herzog, 228 N.Y. 164, 170).

Reasoning and Analysis

In applying these principles, it must be determined whether there was any foreseeability that the railroad employees’ actions would result in harm to Palsgraf. The conduct of helping a man board a moving train does not inherently carry a foreseeable risk of causing an explosion or injury, especially given that the package appeared harmless and its dangerous contents were unknown.

The court held that negligence must be measured based on the foreseeable risk to individuals within a zone of danger. Since there was no reasonable perception that assisting a man onto a train with an innocuous-looking package would lead to an explosion injuring someone standing far away on the platform, this act did not meet the threshold for negligence relative to Palsgraf’s position.


The Court of Appeals of New York reversed the judgment of the Appellate Division and dismissed Palsgraf’s complaint. The court held that there was no negligence towards Palsgraf as there was no foreseeable risk posed by the actions of the railroad employees relative to her position on the platform.

Dissenting Opinions

Justice Andrews dissented, arguing that liability should attach if an act unreasonably threatens safety and results in injury, irrespective of whether the injured party was within a foreseeable zone of danger. He posited that negligence should be viewed in terms of proximate cause rather than specific duty to individuals perceived as within danger’s radius.

Key Takeaways

  1. Negligence requires foreseeability of harm to the person who is injured.
  2. A defendant’s duty of care is limited to those within the zone of foreseeable risk.
  3. The Court established a precedent that unforeseeable injuries do not result in liability for negligence.

Relevant FAQs of this case

What determines the scope of a defendant's duty of care in negligence cases?

The scope of a defendant’s duty of care in negligence cases is determined by whether the harm to the plaintiff was foreseeable. This includes evaluating the likelihood of injury, the potential severity of harm, and the connection between the defendant’s conduct and the risk created.

  • For example: If a store owner leaves cleaning solution on the floor without a warning sign, and a customer slips and falls, it is foreseeable that such negligence could cause harm to customers.

How is the foreseeability of harm assessed in determining liability for negligence?

Foreseeability of harm is assessed by considering whether a reasonable person in the defendant’s position would have anticipated that their conduct could cause harm to others. The focus is on the predictability of the outcome as a result of the defendant’s actions.

  • For example: A car owner failing to repair faulty brakes may be liable for an accident, as it is reasonably foreseeable that driving with such brakes can lead to injury.

Does an indirect chain of events affect liability for negligence?

An indirect chain of events can affect liability for negligence if the resulting harm is deemed unforeseeable. Defendants are typically not held liable for plaintiffs’ injuries if the injuries occur in an unexpected manner that could not have been predicted.

  • For example: A butterfly collector who accidentally releases an exotic species that later causes environmental damage might not be held liable if they could not have foreseen this consequence from their actions.


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