Kemezy v. Peters

79 F.3d 33 (7th Cir. 1996)

Quick Summary

Jeffrey Kemezy (plaintiff) sued James Peters (defendant) for injuries sustained during an altercation where Peters was employed as a security guard. The jury awarded Kemezy both compensatory and punitive damages.

The main issue revolved around whether Kemezy needed to provide evidence of Peters’ net worth to justify the punitive damages. The court concluded that such evidence was not necessary for the jury to award punitive damages.

Facts of the Case

Jeffrey Kemezy (plaintiff) was involved in a physical confrontation with James Peters (defendant), who was working as a security guard at a bowling alley while off-duty from his position as a police officer.

The altercation led to Kemezy sustaining injuries after Peters allegedly beat him with a nightstick. Kemezy brought a legal action against Peters, asserting that Peters had recklessly assaulted him, causing significant harm.

The jury found in favor of Kemezy, awarding him $10,000 in compensatory damages and $20,000 in punitive damages. However, Peters contested the punitive damages, arguing that the jury should have been presented with evidence of his net worth to determine an appropriate amount for the punitive damages.

Procedural Posture and History

  1. Kemezy filed a lawsuit against Peters under 42 U.S.C. § 1983 for excessive use of force.
  2. The jury awarded Kemezy compensatory and punitive damages.
  3. Peters appealed the award of punitive damages, claiming the lack of evidence regarding his net worth was a basis for appeal.

I.R.A.C. Format


Whether the plaintiff is required to introduce evidence of the defendant’s net worth when seeking punitive damages.

Rule of Law

The rule applied by the court is that plaintiffs are not obligated to present evidence of a defendant’s net worth when seeking punitive damages, and defendants can argue their inability to pay as a consideration for reducing the damages.

Reasoning and Analysis

The court considered various purposes served by punitive damages, including compensation for intangible injuries, deterrence of wrongful conduct, and expression of community indignation. The court noted that none of these purposes necessitate evidence of a defendant’s wealth.

The court also highlighted that imposing such a requirement could lead to intrusive discovery practices and might encourage plaintiffs to seek punitive damages solely based on a defendant’s ability to pay rather than on the merits of the case.

Furthermore, the court discussed how the criminal justice system and punitive damages serve similar functions, such as providing incentives for private enforcement and preventing breaches of peace.

The court concluded that evidence of a defendant’s wealth is not essential for determining punitive damages and that it is more appropriate for defendants to disclose their financial status if they believe it relevant to the award.


The Court affirmed the jury’s award of punitive damages and held that it is not necessary for the plaintiff to introduce evidence of the defendant’s net worth in cases seeking punitive damages.

Key Takeaways

  1. Punitive damages serve to compensate for intangible injuries, deter wrongful conduct, and express social condemnation of the defendant’s act.
  2. Plaintiffs are not required to present evidence of a defendant’s net worth when seeking punitive damages.
  3. Defendants who are unable to pay large punitive damages awards can inform the jury of their financial situation as part of their defense strategy.

Relevant FAQs of this case

What factors determine the amount of punitive damages awarded in a civil case?

Punitive damages are determined based on factors such as the severity of the defendant’s misconduct, the need for deterring similar conduct, and the harm caused to the plaintiff. They aim to punish particularly harmful behavior and deter its occurrence. Judges and juries may consider the reprehensibility of the defendant’s actions, any malicious intent, and the ratio between punitive and compensatory damages. These factors ensure that punitive damages are proportionate and serve their intended purpose.

  • For example: In a case of fraud where the defendant deliberately misled numerous consumers causing widespread harm, punitive damages might be higher to reflect society’s condemnation of such deceitful practices and to discourage similar conduct by others.

Can punitive damages be awarded without proof of actual damages?

Punitive damages typically require a finding of actual damages as they are intended to punish and deter behavior that goes beyond mere negligence; however, in rare cases where the conduct is especially egregious, courts may award punitive damages even absent significant actual damages to send a strong message against such behavior.

  • For example: If a company released a product knowing it was hazardous but concealed this information, resulting in minimal physical harm but significant risk of harm, courts might impose punitive damages to penalize reckless endangerment and promote consumer safety.

How does a jury consider a defendant's ability to pay when deciding on punitive damages?

A jury may consider a defendant’s financial status when determining punitive damages to ensure they are substantial enough to fulfill their punitive purpose without being financially ruinous. This balance aims to make the punishment meaningful relative to the defendant’s wealth without inflicting undue hardship.

  • For example: For a small business owner whose negligent actions caused harm, punitive damages would likely be lower than for a large corporation under similar circumstances, to reflect the disparity in their financial capacities while still addressing the misconduct appropriately.


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