Henningsen v. Bloomfield Motors, Inc.

32 N.J. 358, 161 A.2d 69 (1960)

Quick Summary

Claus H. Henningsen (plaintiff) bought a car from Bloomfield Motors (defendant), which ended up being involved in an accident due to steering failure, injuring Helen Henningsen (plaintiff).

The dispute centered around enforcing a limited warranty clause against claims for injury damages due to alleged breach of warranty.

The Supreme Court of New Jersey ruled that such a limitation is invalid against public policy.

Facts of the Case

Claus H. Henningsen (plaintiff) purchased a Plymouth automobile for his wife, Helen Henningsen (plaintiff), as a Mother’s Day gift from Bloomfield Motors, Inc. (defendant), an authorized dealer of Chrysler Corporation vehicles (defendant). Ten days after acquiring the vehicle, while Mrs. Henningsen was driving, the car’s steering abruptly failed, causing the vehicle to crash into a highway sign and a brick wall.

The car was subsequently declared a total loss by the insurance carrier due to the extent of the damage. The sales contract included a warranty limiting the liability for any defects to replacement of parts only, which was located in small print on the reverse side of the contract—a fact Mr. Henningsen was unaware of when he signed it.

This case arose from Mrs. Henningsen’s injuries sustained in the accident and Claus Henningsen’s consequent losses.

Procedural Posture and History

  1. The plaintiffs filed suit against both defendants alleging breach of express and implied warranties and negligence.
  2. The trial court dismissed the negligence claims but allowed the case to go to a jury on implied warranty issues.
  3. The jury found in favor of the plaintiffs.
  4. Defendants appealed, contesting the trial court’s findings on warranties.
  5. Plaintiffs cross-appealed on the dismissal of their negligence claims.
  6. The matter was certified by the Supreme Court of New Jersey prior to Appellate Division consideration.

I.R.A.C. Format


  • Whether the disclaimer limiting liability for breach of warranty to replacement of defective parts is enforceable against the plaintiffs.
  • Whether an implied warranty of merchantability extends to a non-signatory user such as Mrs. Henningsen.

Rule of Law

Implied warranty obligations cannot be negated by a manufacturer’s or dealer’s disclaimer when such disclaimers are contrary to public policy and injurious to consumer rights.

Reasoning and Analysis

The court looked at how businesses, especially in industries where a few big companies have a lot of power, make contracts that regular people can’t really negotiate. People often have to agree to these contracts even though they limit their legal rights.

The court understood how important cars are but also how dangerous they can be if they’re not made well. They wanted to make sure that when people buy cars, they and their families are protected by certain guarantees, even if the companies try to say they’re not responsible.

The court said that the way companies sell things nowadays means they have to stick to certain promises they make to customers, even if it’s not the traditional way it used to be.


The court affirmed that both manufacturers and dealers owe an implied warranty of merchantability that extends not only to buyers but also to members of their family or others who use the vehicle with consent—disclaimers limiting liability for breach of these warranties are invalid as against public policy.

Key Takeaways

  1. Disclaimers limiting liability for breach of warranty to replacement parts are unenforceable if contrary to public policy.
  2. Implied warranties extend beyond direct buyers to users with consent.
  3. Freedom of contract is not absolute where consumer rights are significantly compromised.

Relevant FAQs of this case

What is an implied warranty of merchantability and its protection for consumers?

An implied warranty of merchantability guarantees that purchased goods will function as expected for their ordinary purpose.

  • For example: when you buy a phone, it’s implied it will work as a phone should—making calls, sending messages, and so on.

Why do courts prioritize consumer protection over absolute freedom of contract?

Courts prioritize consumer protection when contracts unfairly limit consumer rights.

  • For example: In cases where a contract significantly disadvantages a buyer, courts intervene to ensure fairness, balancing the freedom to contract with protecting consumers from harm.

Why might implied warranties extend to users beyond the initial purchaser?

Implied warranties might extend to users beyond the initial buyer to ensure broader protection.

  • For example: If a parent buys a defective toy for a child, the implied warranty might cover the child’s safety even though they didn’t directly purchase the toy.


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