Harris v. Board of Education of Howard County

825 A.2d 365 (2003)

Quick Summary

Vernell Harris (plaintiff) suffered a back injury while employed by the Howard County Board of Education (defendant). Her claim for workers’ compensation led to a legal dispute over whether her injury needed to result from ‘unusual activity’ to be compensable under Maryland law.

The case was ultimately appealed to the Court of Appeals of Maryland, which concluded that such a requirement was inconsistent with statutory language and purpose. The Court ruled in favor of Harris, affirming her right to compensation.

Facts of the Case

Vernell Harris (plaintiff) was employed by the Howard County Board of Education (defendant) as a Food and Nutritional Service Assistant I at Wilde Lake High School. Her duties included preparing lunches, handling the cash register, cleaning the kitchen, and laundering linens.

On January 25, 1999, while performing her regular duties, Harris and a co-worker encountered a heavy box of laundry detergent infested with cockroaches. In an attempt to protect the food preparation area from contamination, they dragged the heavy box outside.

During this process, Harris injured her back after bending down to tie up the bag of soap powder. Following the injury, Harris filed a claim with the Workers’ Compensation Commission, which found her entitled to compensation.

The Howard County Board of Education sought judicial review in the Circuit Court for Howard County, which resulted in a jury verdict in favor of the employer. The Court of Special Appeals affirmed the decision, leading to Harris’ appeal to the Court of Appeals of Maryland.

Procedural Posture and History

  1. Harris filed a claim with the Workers’ Compensation Commission and was awarded compensation.
  2. The Howard County Board of Education contested the decision, leading to a jury trial in the Circuit Court for Howard County.
  3. The Circuit Court’s jury verdict favored the employer, denying Harris compensation.
  4. Harris appealed to the Court of Special Appeals, which affirmed the lower court’s decision.
  5. Harris further appealed to the Court of Appeals of Maryland.

I.R.A.C. Format


Whether an injury must arise out of ‘unusual activity’ to be considered an ‘accidental personal injury’ under the Maryland Workers’ Compensation Act.

Rule of Law

The statutory definition of ‘accidental personal injury’ does not include an ‘unusual activity’ requirement. What must be accidental is the injury itself, not the activity causing the injury. The activity only needs to arise out of and in the course of employment, without being otherwise excluded by the Act.

Reasoning and Analysis

The Court of Appeals of Maryland examined prior conflicting case law and determined that the ‘unusual activity’ requirement was not supported by the language of the Workers’ Compensation Act and was contrary to its liberal purposes. The requirement was also a minority view both historically and among current jurisdictions.

The Court referred to Victory Sparkler & Specialty Co. v. Francks as setting a broad scope for ‘accidental personal injury’ and emphasized that injuries should be unexpected and unintended without regard to whether the activity causing them was unusual.

By analyzing various lines of cases within Maryland’s jurisprudence, the Court concluded that the ‘unusual activity’ standard had been inconsistently applied and did not align with the statute’s intent or other jurisdictions’ interpretations.

Therefore, it decided to overrule this requirement and restore a broader understanding of what constitutes an accidental injury within the Act.


The Court reversed the judgments of both lower courts and directed that the decision of the Workers’ Compensation Commission be affirmed, ruling that Harris sustained a compensable accidental personal injury.

Key Takeaways

  1. An injury does not have to arise from ‘unusual activity’ for it to be compensable under Maryland’s Workers’ Compensation Act.
  2. The Court seeks to align Maryland’s interpretation of ‘accidental personal injury’ with broader standards recognized by other jurisdictions and historical precedent.
  3. The Workers’ Compensation Act is intended to be liberally construed in favor of injured employees.

Relevant FAQs of this case

What determines if an injury is 'accidental' within the context of workplace legislation?

An injury is deemed ‘accidental’ under workplace legislation if it occurs unexpectedly and without intention during the course of employment, regardless of the regularity of the activity involved.

  • For example: A librarian reaching for a book slips off a step ladder, breaking their arm. Even though climbing ladders is a regular part of their job, the fall is unexpected, making the injury ‘accidental.’

How do workers' compensation laws generally interpret 'arising out of employment'?

‘Arising out of employment’ refers to injuries directly connected to job duties, suggesting that the employment must have contributed to the cause of the injury.

  • For example: A delivery driver develops a wrist injury due to the repetitive motion of steering. As driving is a central part of their job and contributes to the condition, it arises out of their employment.

In workers' compensation cases, what is the significance of liberal construction in favor of employees?

Liberal construction means that when interpretive doubts arise within workers’ compensation law, they are resolved in favor of the employee to fulfill the purpose of providing protection and benefits to workers injured on the job.

  • For example: A construction worker who experiences hearing loss due to prolonged exposure to loud noise at work may be awarded benefits, even if the exact onset time of hearing loss isn’t clear, as laws are tilted towards employee welfare.


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