Harper v. Paradise

210 S.E.2d 710 (1974)

Quick Summary

The children of Maude Harper (plaintiffs) and Lincoln and William Paradise (defendants) disputed over the title to a farm. The conflict arose from a lost deed granted in 1922, which was found and recorded much later, and subsequent transactions that allegedly transferred the property to other parties.

The Supreme Court of Georgia had to determine if the original deed’s remaindermen held superior title over those claiming under a foreclosure sale. The court concluded that the original deed had precedence and reversed the lower court’s verdict in favor of the Paradises.

Facts of the Case

In 1922, Susan Harper (plaintiff) bequeathed a farm to her daughter-in-law, Maude Harper (defendant), granting her a life estate with the remainder to Maude’s children. This deed was lost for many years and wasn’t recorded until 1957. Susan passed away between 1925 and 1927.

Subsequently, Susan’s heirs, except for John W. Harper, executed a document in 1928 acknowledging the missing deed and transferred their interest in the property to Maude. This document was recorded that same year.

Maude used the farm as collateral for a loan from Ella Thornton. Upon defaulting, Thornton foreclosed and obtained the property in 1936. The title then passed through several hands, eventually reaching Lincoln and William Paradise (defendants) in 1955. After Maude’s death in 1972, her children (plaintiffs), as named remaindermen, disputed the Paradises’ claim to the farm.

Procedural Posture and History

  1. The trial court granted a directed verdict in favor of the Paradises and denied the Harper children’s motion.
  2. The Harper children appealed to the Supreme Court of Georgia.

I.R.A.C. Format


Whether the Harper children, as remaindermen named in a lost deed from 1922, have superior title to the farm over the Paradises, who claim through a chain of title originating from a subsequent foreclosure.

Rule of Law

Deeds must be recorded to maintain priority over subsequent recorded deeds from the same vendor, and bona fide purchasers from heirs are protected against unrecorded conveyances by deceased persons, unless there is actual notice of those conveyances.

Reasoning and Analysis

The court dissected the claims by examining the sequence of events and deeds. It found that the 1928 deed to Maude Harper from three of Susan Harper’s heirs could not have priority over the 1922 deed because it was made with knowledge of the earlier deed’s existence, which was not recorded until later.

The recitals in the 1928 deed informed subsequent purchasers of the prior unrecorded deed, negating their claim of good faith under Code § 29-401. The appellees’ claim of prescriptive title was also rejected because prescription cannot begin against remaindermen until the life estate ends, which in this case was upon Maude Harper’s death in 1972.

Thus, any adverse possession claims prior to that date could not establish prescriptive title over the remaindermen’s interest.


The Supreme Court of Georgia reversed the trial court’s decision, directing that judgment be entered in favor of the Harper children.

Key Takeaways

  1. Recorded deeds take precedence over subsequent deeds unless there is notice of an earlier unrecorded conveyance.
  2. Prescriptive rights cannot be established against remaindermen until after the life estate ends.
  3. The recitals in a deed can provide constructive notice to subsequent purchasers regarding prior unrecorded interests.

Relevant FAQs of this case

What is the significance of recording a deed and how does it affect subsequent purchasers?

The act of recording a deed serves as public notice of the transaction and establishes the recorded deed’s priority over later unclaimed interests. This protects subsequent bona fide purchasers—those who buy property without notice of any other claims—from competing interests that were not recorded. In most jurisdictions, recording statutes give priority to earlier recorded deeds.

  • For example: Imagine someone sells a piece of land to Buyer A, who fails to record the deed. The seller then sells the same land to Buyer B, who records their deed. Typically, Buyer B would have superior title against Buyer A due to the recording, unless Buyer B had actual knowledge of the prior unrecorded sale to Buyer A.

How does prescriptive title by adverse possession interact with life estates and remainder interests?

Adverse possession cannot commence against remainder interests during the existence of a life estate. In other words, a party claiming prescriptive title must use the property in a way that is hostile to the rights of the remaindermen for a statutory period that begins only after the termination of the life estate.

  • For example: Suppose an individual openly and continuously uses a parcel of land for 20 years, but this period overlaps entirely with someone else’s life estate on that property. The statute of limitations for adverse possession would only start ticking after the life estate ends, so the individual’s claim for prescriptive title over the land would not succeed until they meet the required period after that point.

What constitutes constructive notice in real property transactions?

Constructive notice is legal notice imparted by law to a person not actually notified but presumed to know because certain information is in public records or readily available through diligent inquiry. It prevents parties from claiming ignorance about a prior right or interest.

  • For example: If there’s a recorded mortgage on a property, any potential buyer is considered to have constructive notice of that mortgage because it’s within public records. Therefore, they cannot claim they were unaware of it, even if they never physically saw or were told about it directly.


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