Greenfield v. Philles Records, Inc.

98 N.Y.2d 562, 780 N.E.2d 166, 750 N.Y.S.2d 565 (2002)

Quick Summary

Ronnie Greenfield (plaintiff) and her group The Ronettes signed a contract with Philles Records, Inc. (defendant) in 1963, transferring ownership of their recordings. In the 1980s, Philles licensed these songs without paying royalties to The Ronettes, who then sued for these payments.

The issue was whether the contract allowed Philles to license songs for new media without additional royalties. The New York Court of Appeals concluded that full ownership rights granted by the contract included all forms of licensing and remitted for recalculation of royalties due from sales by third parties.

Facts of the Case

Ronnie Greenfield (plaintiff), Estelle Bennett, and Nedra Talley, known collectively as The Ronettes, were a singing group that rose to fame in the early 1960s. They entered into a contract with Philles Records, Inc. (defendant), owned by Phil Spector (defendant), in 1963, granting the record company full ownership of their master recordings and establishing a royalty payment schedule.

Despite their success, the group disbanded in 1967 and no further royalties were paid to them after their initial advance. In the 1980s, Philles Records began licensing The Ronettes’ songs for movies, TV shows, and compilation albums without paying any royalties to the group.

Claiming that the 1963 contract did not allow for such licensing, The Ronettes sued Philles Records and Spector for royalties.

Procedural Posture and History

  1. The Ronettes sued PRI and Spector for unpaid royalties in 1987.
  2. The trial court ruled in favor of The Ronettes, awarding them $3 million in damages.
  3. The Appellate Division affirmed the trial court’s decision.
  4. PRI and Spector appealed to the New York Court of Appeals.

I.R.A.C. Format


Whether the contract between The Ronettes and Philles Records granted the record company the right to license The Ronettes’ songs for movies, TV shows, and compilation albums without paying additional royalties to the group.

Rule of Law

If a party unconditionally transfers ownership rights to artistic property, they relinquish all rights to control or profit from the property in any form unless specific reservations are made in the contract. A contract’s silence on certain forms of exploitation does not create ambiguity; rather, it suggests that no limitations on use were intended by the parties.

Reasoning and Analysis

The court found that the contract between The Ronettes and Philles Records was clear and unambiguous. It gave Philles Records full ownership rights over The Ronettes’ master recordings, including the right to make reproductions ‘by any method now or hereafter known.’

This language was interpreted to mean that Philles Records could license the recordings in any format, including those that did not exist at the time of the contract’s signing, as long as they paid the appropriate royalties. The court rejected The Ronettes’ argument that certain uses were not allowed because they were not specifically mentioned in the contract.

Instead, it emphasized that an owner of a master recording has the right to exploit it in any manner unless explicitly restricted by the contract. This principle applies despite technological advancements that were unforeseen at the time of the contract’s execution.


The New York Court of Appeals modified the Appellate Division’s order and remitted the case back to Supreme Court to recalculate plaintiffs’ damages for royalties due on domestic sales of audio reproductions licensed by third parties.

Key Takeaways

  1. Full ownership rights in a contract include all forms of exploitation unless specifically limited by the agreement.
  2. Silence in a contract regarding specific uses does not constitute ambiguity and does not restrict the owner’s rights to use the property.
  3. Contracts will be enforced according to their plain terms, reflecting the parties’ intent at the time of agreement.

Relevant FAQs of this case

What determines the scope of rights transferred in an intellectual property contract?

The scope of rights transferred in an intellectual property contract depends on the specific terms and language used within the contract. If the contract explicitly states that all rights are transferred, it generally means the recipient has carte blanche to use the property as they see fit, barring any limitations outlined within the agreement. It is essential for the transferring party to reserve rights if they wish to limit future uses.

  • For example: When a novelist sells their book’s film adaptation rights without reservation, they cannot later claim a share of profits from spin-offs, merchandise, or other derivative works unless such limitations were initially stipulated.

How does technological advancement affect the interpretation of licensing agreements?

Technological advancements can extend the possibilities for exploiting intellectual property beyond what was envisioned when an initial agreement was formed. Courts often interpret licensing agreements to include new forms of media if the original contract was broad and did not restrict exploitation methods, both current and future, at the time of its signing.

  • For example: If an artist signs a contract granting a record label the right to distribute their music ‘by any methods now known or developed in the future’, it could likely include streaming services, even though they weren’t available at the contract’s signing.

Does ambiguity in a contract favor the creator or receiver of rights in intellectual property matters?

In disputes over intellectual property matters, contract ambiguity often results in courts interpreting the intent behind the contractual language. However, unambiguous contracts with comprehensive transfers of rights typically favor the receiver. Where contracts are silent on limitations, it is usually presumed that no restrictions were intended.

  • For example: If a software developer transfers ‘all rights’ to their app without defining limitations or allowed uses, a court may find that future revenue streams such as microtransactions or data monetization are included in that transfer.


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