Grable & Sons Metal Products, Inc. v. Darue Engineering & Manufacturing

545 U.S. 308 (2005)

Quick Summary

Grable & Sons Metal Products, Inc. (plaintiff) disputed the title of property sold by the IRS to Darue Engineering & Manufacturing (defendant), claiming inadequate notice as per federal law. The issue before the Supreme Court was whether this state-law claim could establish federal-question jurisdiction despite no federal cause of action or diversity among parties.

The Supreme Court held that federal-question jurisdiction was appropriate due to the significant federal issue at stake. The case’s resolution depended on interpreting federal tax law, an area where a federal forum was deemed beneficial for consistency and expertise in handling such matters.

Facts of the Case

In 1994, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) seized property in Michigan from Grable & Sons Metal Products, Inc. (plaintiff) due to unpaid federal taxes. The IRS notified Grable of the seizure and subsequent sale by certified mail, not through personal service as Grable later contended was required by law.

After the IRS sold the property to Darue Engineering and Manufacturing (defendant), and the period for Grable to redeem the property lapsed, the IRS issued a quitclaim deed to Darue. Five years after the sale, Grable initiated a quiet title action in state court, claiming Darue’s title was invalid because the IRS did not follow the proper notification process outlined in federal tax law.

Darue moved the case to federal court, arguing that the case presented a federal question because it necessitated interpreting a federal tax statute. Both the district court and the Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit agreed that federal jurisdiction was appropriate, prompting Grable to seek a hearing at the Supreme Court.

Procedural Posture and History

  1. The IRS seized property from Grable & Sons Metal Products, Inc. for unpaid taxes and sold it to Darue Engineering & Manufacturing.
  2. Grable initiated a quiet title action in state court against Darue.
  3. Darue removed the case to federal court on grounds of a federal question.
  4. The district court and the Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit affirmed federal jurisdiction.
  5. Grable appealed to the United States Supreme Court on jurisdictional grounds.

I.R.A.C. Format


Whether a state-law claim can give rise to federal-question jurisdiction when it requires resolving a significant issue of federal law, even if there is no federal cause of action for the plaintiff and the parties are not diverse.

Rule of Law

The rule of law in this case is that federal-question jurisdiction is proper when a state-law claim raises a significant issue of federal law that is actually in dispute and substantial enough to warrant a federal forum, without upsetting Congress’s intended division of labor between state and federal courts.

Reasoning and Analysis

The Supreme Court found that Grable’s claim hinged on an interpretation of federal tax law, specifically regarding notice requirements for seizure of property. This legal question was considered both substantial and significant since it involved the federal government’s interest in tax collection and property rights following tax delinquency sales.

The Court determined that allowing federal jurisdiction in this case would not lead to an overwhelming shift of state cases into federal courts because such disputes over federal tax law are relatively rare in state quiet title actions. While acknowledging that Congress did not provide a private federal cause of action for Grable’s claim against Darue, the Court held that this did not preclude federal jurisdiction.

The decision reasoned that the importance of having a federal forum to resolve issues of federal tax law superseded the absence of a federal cause of action. Thus, the Court affirmed that federal courts could hear cases involving state-law claims with embedded federal issues when they meet certain criteria.


The Supreme Court affirmed the decision of the Court of Appeals, holding that federal jurisdiction over Grable’s quiet title action was proper.

Key Takeaways

  1. Federal-question jurisdiction can be appropriate for state-law claims involving substantial and disputed issues of federal law.
  2. The absence of a private federal cause of action does not automatically preclude federal-question jurisdiction if other factors support such jurisdiction.
  3. The Supreme Court will consider both the substantiality of the federal issue and its impact on the division of labor between state and federal courts when determining jurisdiction.

Relevant FAQs of this case

What factors must be present for a state-law claim to establish federal-question jurisdiction?

A state-law claim can establish federal-question jurisdiction if it involves a significant issue of federal law that is actually disputed, substantial, and of such importance that it merits a federal court’s decision for consistent interpretations of the law.

  • For example: In a contract dispute involving state law, if the contract’s validity hinges on compliance with a federal statute, this may raise a significant federal issue warranting federal-question jurisdiction.

How does the existence of a significant federal issue in a case impact the division of labor between state and federal courts?

The presence of a significant federal issue can justify the exercise of federal jurisdiction when the federal interest is paramount and its resolution here will not disturb the balanced distribution of cases provided typically for by state and federal jurisdictions.

  • For example: A state tort claim alleging pollution might require application of the Clean Air Act, drawing the interests and special competence of federal courts into play without disrupting state courts’ general role in adjudicating torts.

Why might a court favor a federal forum for resolving certain disputes even when there is no dedicated federal cause of action?

A court may prefer a federal forum to ensure uniform interpretation of federal laws, especially if inconsistent rulings could impact national policies, or when resolution requires distinctly federal administrative expertise.

  • For example: A claim involving alleged patent infringement may go to federal court even in the absence of a specific cause of action, due to the specialized nature of patent laws and their nationwide application.


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