Dugger v. Arredondo

408 S.W.3d 825 (2013)

Quick Summary

Geoffrey Dugger (defendant) was sued by Mary Ann Arredondo (plaintiff) after her son died from an overdose at Dugger’s house. Dugger asserted the ‘unlawful acts doctrine’ as a defense to bar recovery.

The Supreme Court of Texas addressed whether this doctrine could be used as an absolute defense given the state’s proportionate responsibility laws.

The Court concluded that such common law doctrines are not viable defenses in light of these laws, affirming the reversal of summary judgment previously granted to Dugger.

Facts of the Case

Geoffrey Dugger (defendant) spent an evening with Joel Martinez consuming alcohol, marijuana, and black-tar heroin, which led to Martinez’s overdose and death. Dugger delayed in calling emergency services and did not inform them of the heroin use when they arrived.

Mary Ann Arredondo (plaintiff), Martinez’s mother, filed a wrongful death lawsuit against Dugger citing negligence. Martinez was at Dugger’s residence, where the substances were consumed.

Upon realizing Martinez was in distress, Dugger initially contacted Arredondo rather than emergency services and failed to disclose the full extent of the situation, which may have contributed to the fatality.

Procedural Posture and History

  1. The trial court granted Dugger’s motion for summary judgment based on the unlawful acts doctrine.
  2. The court of appeals reversed the trial court’s decision and remanded the case for trial.
  3. Dugger appealed the decision of the court of appeals.

I.R.A.C. Format


Whether the common law ‘unlawful acts doctrine’ can be used as an affirmative defense to completely bar a plaintiff’s recovery in a wrongful death suit in light of Texas’s proportionate responsibility scheme and statutory affirmative defense provided in section 93.001 of the Texas Civil Practice and Remedies Code.

Rule of Law

The proportionate responsibility scheme under Chapter 33 of the Civil Practice and Remedies Code, which allocates responsibility for harm among parties based on their percentage of fault. Additionally, section 93.001 provides a specific affirmative defense for injuries sustained during the commission of a felony or suicide.

Reasoning and Analysis

The Supreme Court of Texas held that the Legislature’s adoption of the proportionate responsibility scheme indicated an intention for a plaintiff’s illegal conduct not falling within a statutorily-recognized affirmative defense to be apportioned rather than completely barring recovery.

The Court found that the common law unlawful acts doctrine could not coexist with this scheme and that Chapter 33 controls over the unlawful acts doctrine in wrongful death cases.

The Court also considered section 93.001 and concluded that it provided an affirmative defense in very limited circumstances, requiring a conviction, which did not apply in this case.

The Court affirmed that unless the requirements of section 93.001 are met, a plaintiff’s share of responsibility should be compared against the defendant’s.


The Supreme Court of Texas affirmed the court of appeals’ judgment that reversed the summary judgment and remanded the case to the trial court for further proceedings.

Dissenting Opinions

Justice HECHT, joined by Justice WILLETT and Justice DEVINE, dissented, arguing that the common-law unlawful acts doctrine should not be conflated with comparative fault principles under Chapter 33 and that Section 93.001 was intended only to reaffirm the doctrine’s application when there is a criminal conviction.

Key Takeaways

  1. The common law ‘unlawful acts doctrine’ cannot be used as an affirmative defense to bar recovery in personal injury and wrongful death cases under Texas law.
  2. Plaintiffs’ illegal conduct should be considered under Texas’s proportionate responsibility scheme unless it falls within specific statutory affirmative defenses requiring a criminal conviction.
  3. The Supreme Court of Texas affirmed the reversal of summary judgment, allowing the case to proceed to trial to determine fault and damages based on proportionate responsibility.

Relevant FAQs of this case

What determines whether an illegal act by a plaintiff will preclude them from recovering damages in a negligence case?

An illegal act by a plaintiff does not automatically preclude them from recovering damages, as courts often employ comparative fault principles to apportion responsibility among all parties involved. The determination hinges on the jurisdiction’s specific laws regarding contributory negligence and proportional comparative fault. If the plaintiff’s illegal act contributed to their injury and this falls under a jurisdiction that recognizes contributory negligence, they may be barred from recovering damages. In jurisdictions with comparative fault systems, the plaintiff’s recovery can be reduced in proportion to their degree of fault.

  • For example: If a burglar enters a home and is injured because the homeowner has set up dangerously negligent traps, the burglar’s recovery for injuries might be diminished by their percentage of fault in committing the burglary, but not completely barred under a comparative fault system.

How do courts allocate responsibility between multiple parties in an injury case?

Courts allocate responsibility in an injury case using various doctrines such as joint and several liability or several liability and a system of comparative or contributory negligence. Under joint and several liability, any defendant can be held responsible for the full amount of damages, while under several liability, each party is liable only for their portion of fault as determined by the court. Comparative negligence allows recovery to be reduced based on the plaintiff’s own negligence; while contributory negligence may bar recovery entirely if the plaintiff is found to be at all at fault.

  • For example: In a car accident involving two drivers where one is 70% at fault and the other is 30% at fault, under pure comparative negligence, if driver one suffered $100,000 in damages, they could recover $70,000 from driver two.

In what circumstances can an affirmative defense legally justify exemption from or mitigation of liability in a tort case?

An affirmative defense justifies exemption from or mitigation of liability when a defendant can prove facts that, under law, provide a legal excuse or justification for their otherwise tortious actions. Common examples include self-defense, consent, necessity, and statute of limitations. The court will consider these affirmative defenses within the context of statutory laws specific to that jurisdiction. For an affirmative defense to succeed, the burden is typically on the defendant to prove its applicability by preponderance of evidence.

  • For example: In a defamation case, truth can serve as an affirmative defense. If the defendant can show that the allegedly defamatory statements were true, they might be exempt from liability regardless of the harm caused.


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