Bankers Life & Casualty Co. v. Crenshaw

486 U.S. 71 (1988)

Quick Summary

Lloyd Crenshaw (plaintiff) sued Bankers Life & Casualty (defendant) for refusing to pay an insurance claim after an injury led to his leg’s amputation. The trial and state supreme court supported Crenshaw, awarding him actual and punitive damages.

The issue before the U.S. Supreme Court focused on whether Mississippi’s law imposing additional penalties for unsuccessful appeals was unconstitutional. The Court upheld the law, affirming that it did not violate equal protection principles.

Facts of the Case

Lloyd Crenshaw (plaintiff) suffered an injury when he dropped a car alternator on his foot, eventually leading to an amputation below the knee. Crenshaw held an insurance policy with Bankers Life & Casualty (defendant), which he claimed should cover the amputation. Bankers Life denied the claim, attributing the amputation to a pre-existing condition rather than the accident.

After extensive correspondence and Bankers Life’s steadfast refusal to pay, Crenshaw sued in Mississippi state court for actual damages and punitive damages for bad-faith refusal to pay an insurance claim. The jury awarded both the policy amount and substantial punitive damages, which were affirmed by the Mississippi Supreme Court.

Procedural Posture and History

  1. Crenshaw filed a claim with Bankers Life & Casualty for insurance coverage which was denied.
  2. Crenshaw sued Bankers Life in Mississippi state court for actual and punitive damages.
  3. The jury awarded Crenshaw $20,000 in actual damages and $1.6 million in punitive damages.
  4. The Mississippi Supreme Court affirmed the jury verdict.
  5. Bankers Life appealed to the United States Supreme Court.

I.R.A.C. Format


Whether a Mississippi statute imposing a 15% penalty on unsuccessful appeals from a money judgment violates the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.

Rule of Law

The Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment requires that no state shall ‘deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws,’ which implies that states must apply laws uniformly and not subject individuals or groups to arbitrary or disparate treatment without a rational basis for such differentiation.

Reasoning and Analysis

The Supreme Court examined whether Mississippi’s statute, which added a 15% penalty on unsuccessful appeals from money judgments, was rationally related to legitimate state interests. These interests included discouraging frivolous appeals, compensating appellees for litigation costs, and conserving judicial resources.

The Court found that these state interests were legitimate and that the statute’s application to a broad category of appellants was rationally related to its objectives. It distinguished this case from Lindsey v. Normet, where a statute was struck down for imposing an undue burden on a narrow class of litigants without serving a legitimate state interest.


The Supreme Court affirmed the judgment of the Mississippi Supreme Court, finding that the penalty statute did not violate the Equal Protection Clause.

Key Takeaways

  1. The U.S. Supreme Court will uphold state statutes if they are rationally related to legitimate state interests and are applied uniformly under the Equal Protection Clause.
  2. A state may impose additional financial penalties on unsuccessful appeals from money judgments to discourage frivolous litigation and compensate successful appellees without violating the Constitution.
  3. Differentiating between appellants in imposing penalties is permissible as long as there is a rational basis for such treatment.

Relevant FAQs of this case

What justifies the imposition of punitive damages in a civil lawsuit?

Punitive damages are awarded to punish defendants for egregious misconduct and to deter similar actions in the future. They are justified when the defendant’s conduct is found to be willfully reckless, malicious, or fraudulent.

  • For example: A company knowingly sells a dangerous product that causes injury, reflecting a blatant disregard for consumer safety. The award of punitive damages serves not just to punish the company, but also to deter other companies from similar behavior.

How does the Equal Protection Clause ensure fair application of laws?

The Equal Protection Clause mandates that states govern impartially, not drawing distinctions between individuals solely on differences that are irrelevant to a legitimate governmental objective. This ensures that all persons under similar conditions are treated alike by the law.

  • For example: A state cannot have one tax rate for blue-eyed individuals and another for those with brown eyes; such a law would fail to comply with the principle of equal protection as eye color is irrelevant to taxation policy.

What is the rationale behind awarding interest or penalties on judgments during an appeal?

Awarding interest or penalties on judgments during an appeal compensates the winning party for the time value of money lost due to delays caused by the appeal and helps deter frivolous appeals by imposing a financial disincentive.

  • For example: If a person owes money and delays payment through an appeal, interest compensates for the loss of investment opportunities or other uses of that money during the period of delay.


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