AT&T Mobility LLC v. Concepcion

563 U.S. 333 (2011)

Quick Summary

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Vincent and Liza Concepcion (plaintiffs) sued AT&T Mobility LLC (defendant) for deceptive advertising related to an offer for free phones. The dispute centered on whether an arbitration clause within AT&T’s service contract, prohibiting class actions, was enforceable under federal law.

The Supreme Court was presented with the issue of whether California’s rule against such waivers conflicted with federal law. The Court concluded that it did conflict and reversed the lower court’s decision upholding California’s rule.

Facts of the Case

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Vincent and Liza Concepcion (plaintiffs) were drawn to an AT&T Mobility, LLC (defendant) advertisement that promised free phones with their service contract. Though the phones themselves were not billed, a sales tax of $30.22 was charged. The service agreement included a clause that mandated individual arbitration for disputes and explicitly prohibited class action arbitration.

After feeling misled by the ‘free’ phone claim due to the sales tax, the Concepcions initiated a lawsuit alleging deceptive advertising and fraud, which was then merged into a larger class action suit against AT&T.

AT&T sought to enforce the arbitration agreement, which the Concepcions opposed, arguing that it was unconscionable under California law, particularly in light of the Discover Bank decision which held certain class-action waivers in consumer contracts to be unconscionable. The case escalated through the courts as the enforceability of the arbitration clause and its compatibility with federal law came into question.

Procedural Posture and History

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  1. The Concepcions filed a lawsuit in federal district court, which was consolidated into a class action against AT&T.
  2. AT&T moved to compel arbitration based on the agreement’s terms.
  3. The district court denied AT&T’s motion, citing the Discover Bank rule and finding the arbitration provision unconscionable.
  4. The Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed the district court’s decision.
  5. AT&T appealed to the Supreme Court of the United States, which granted certiorari to review the case.

I.R.A.C. Format


Issue Icon

Whether the Federal Arbitration Act (FAA) preempts California’s Discover Bank rule that deems class-action waivers in arbitration agreements unconscionable for certain consumer contracts.

Rule of Law

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The Federal Arbitration Act establishes that arbitration agreements must be treated as any other contract, enforceable according to their terms unless legal or equitable grounds exist for revocation. State laws or rulings that create obstacles to achieving this purpose are preempted by federal law.

Reasoning and Analysis

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The Supreme Court analyzed whether the Discover Bank rule conflicts with the objectives of the FAA. The Court noted that ensuring enforcement of arbitration agreements according to their terms is a primary purpose of the FAA. The Discover Bank rule, by disallowing class-action waivers in certain circumstances, was seen as an obstacle to this purpose because it effectively coerced parties into class arbitration contrary to the terms of their agreement, undermining the advantages of arbitration such as efficiency and cost-effectiveness.

The Court further reasoned that class arbitration significantly changes the nature of arbitration, introducing new procedural complexities and risks that are inconsistent with the FAA’s intent to uphold parties’ agreements. The majority opinion held that the FAA’s saving clause does not protect state laws like Discover Bank that impose conditions on the enforcement of arbitration agreements and thus obstruct the FAA’s objectives.


Conclusion Icon

The Supreme Court reversed the Ninth Circuit’s decision, holding that California’s Discover Bank rule is preempted by the Federal Arbitration Act because it stands as an obstacle to accomplishing Congress’s objectives with the Act.

Dissenting Opinions

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Justice Breyer authored a dissenting opinion, joined by Justices Ginsburg, Sotomayor, and Kagan, arguing that California’s Discover Bank rule did not create an obstacle to the FAA’s objectives and was a legitimate expression of state law aimed at preventing unfairness in contracts.

Key Takeaways

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  1. The FAA preempts state laws that deem class-action waivers in arbitration agreements unconscionable if such laws interfere with the FAA’s objective to ensure enforcement of arbitration agreements according to their terms.
  2. Class arbitration differs significantly from individual arbitration and requires consent from parties, which cannot be inferred solely from the existence of an arbitration agreement in consumer contracts.
  3. The decision reinforces the principle that arbitration is a matter of contract and emphasizes the importance of adhering to the contractual terms agreed upon by the parties involved.

Relevant FAQs of this case

What is the impact of arbitration clauses on the accessibility of collective legal action for consumers?

Arbitration clauses can significantly impact consumer rights by limiting access to collective legal action through class arbitrations or class-action lawsuits. They often require disputes to be resolved individually in private arbitration, which can deter consumers from pursuing claims, especially if potential recovery amounts are small and not worth the individual legal expense.

  • For example: A group of consumers who have all experienced minor damages from a defective product may find it economically unfeasible to pursue individual claims due to higher costs than the potential recovery. An arbitration clause preventing class actions could effectively shield a company from liability for widespread but individually small harms.

How do courts determine if an arbitration agreement is unconscionable?

Courts assess whether an arbitration agreement is unconscionable by evaluating its terms for fairness and balance between parties. This often involves examining both procedural and substantive elements—procedural looks at the circumstances of how the contract was made, while substantive examines the terms themselves and their potential to be overly harsh or one-sided.

  • For example: An arbitration agreement might be deemed unconscionable if it was presented as a non-negotiable term in fine print, coupled with exorbitant fees for initiating arbitration, thereby placing an unfair burden on one party over the other.

Under what conditions might a state law be preempted by federal law regarding arbitration agreements?

State laws regarding arbitration agreements may be preempted by federal law if they conflict with the Federal Arbitration Act’s (FAA) purpose of ensuring the enforceability of arbitration agreements as written. Preemption typically occurs when state law imposes conditions that stand as an obstacle to achieving this objective, such as rules that categorically prohibit certain types of arbitration clauses.

  • For example: A state law requiring mandatory judicial review of all arbitral awards, which runs contrary to the FAA’s provision limiting court interference with arbitration outcomes, would likely be preempted because it impedes the federal policy favoring arbitration.


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