Armendariz v. Foundation Health Psychcare Services, Inc.

24 Cal. 4th 83, 99 Cal. Rptr.2d 745, 6 P.3d 669 (2000)

Quick Summary

Marybeth Armendariz and Dolores Olague-Rodgers (plaintiffs) were terminated by Foundation Health Psychcare Services, Inc. (defendant) and sued for wrongful termination under FEHA. The case focused on the enforceability of an arbitration agreement that was deemed one-sided and limited employees’ remedies.

The Supreme Court of California found that the agreement was unconscionable and violated public policy by limiting available remedies for employees while not imposing similar restrictions on the employer. Consequently, the entire arbitration agreement was declared unenforceable.

Facts of the Case

Marybeth Armendariz and Dolores Olague-Rodgers (plaintiffs) joined Foundation Health Psychcare Services, Inc. (defendant), signing employment forms with an arbitration clause for future wrongful termination claims. They later signed separate agreements with identical clauses stating that in case of employment termination disputes, arbitration was mandatory and damages were limited to lost earnings up to the award date, excluding reinstatement or other legal remedies.

Following their termination, the plaintiffs sued for wrongful termination under the California Fair Employment and Housing Act (FEHA), arguing they faced sexual harassment and discrimination. The Foundation sought to enforce the arbitration agreement, but the trial court found it unconscionable and invalid in its entirety. The Court of Appeal agreed on the unconscionability but severed the damages limitation and enforced the rest of the arbitration agreement.

Procedural Posture and History

  1. The plaintiffs filed a lawsuit against the defendant alleging wrongful termination and discrimination.
  2. The defendant filed a motion to compel arbitration based on the signed arbitration agreements.
  3. The trial court deemed the arbitration clause unconscionable and refused to enforce it.
  4. The Court of Appeal found only the damages provision unconscionable, severed it, and enforced the remainder of the arbitration agreement.
  5. The case was then appealed to the Supreme Court of California.

I.R.A.C. Format


Whether an arbitration agreement that limits damages and compels arbitration for wrongful termination claims but not for employer claims against employees is unconscionable and unenforceable under California law.

Rule of Law

Contracts or clauses found to be unconscionable at the time they were made may not be enforced. The doctrine of unconscionability includes both procedural aspects, such as surprise due to unequal bargaining power, and substantive aspects, like overly harsh or one-sided results. Further, statutory rights under the FEHA are unwaivable, and arbitration agreements must not infringe upon these rights.

Reasoning and Analysis

The Supreme Court of California scrutinized whether the arbitration agreement provided a fair process for employees to vindicate their statutory rights under FEHA. The Court emphasized that while arbitration can offer benefits like speed and cost-effectiveness, it cannot be used to diminish statutory protections or impose one-sided terms favoring employers. The Court found multiple deficiencies in the arbitration agreement, including a damages limitation clause that was contrary to public policy and an unconscionably unilateral arbitration clause.

These defects suggested an attempt by the employer to gain an unfair advantage in dispute resolution. Moreover, the lack of mutuality in requiring only employees to arbitrate claims was deemed unconscionable without reasonable justification from the employer.

The Court concluded that because these unlawful provisions were central to the agreement’s purpose, they could not be severed or restricted without fundamentally altering the contract’s nature. The Court thus held that the entire arbitration agreement was unenforceable.


The Supreme Court of California reversed the judgment of the Court of Appeal, holding that the entire arbitration agreement was unenforceable due to its unconscionable terms and its violation of public policy concerning statutory rights under FEHA.

Key Takeaways

  1. Arbitration agreements cannot limit statutory remedies provided under FEHA or be overly one-sided in favor of employers.
  2. An agreement is considered unconscionable if it lacks fairness and mutuality, especially when imposed by one party over another with no reasonable justification.
  3. Unconscionable provisions central to an agreement’s purpose cannot be severed; instead, the entire contract may be rendered unenforceable.

Relevant FAQs of this case

What constitutes procedural unconscionability in contract formation?

Procedural unconscionability involves unfairness in the contract formation process, such as lack of negotiation opportunity or unequal bargaining power.

  • For example: A mobile phone contract with non-negotiable terms presented on a take-it-or-leave-it basis exhibits procedural unconscionability.

How are statutory rights protected within arbitration agreements?

Statutory rights are protected by ensuring arbitration agreements do not diminish legal protections or preclude remedies granted by law.

  • For example: An employment arbitration agreement must not restrict workers’ statutory rights to file a discrimination claim under equal employment laws.

When can a court refuse to sever an unconscionable provision from a contract?

A court can refuse to sever an unconscionable provision if it is central to the contract’s purpose, affecting the essence of the agreement.

  • For example: A loan agreement that has an exorbitant interest rate clause, which is the core term of the lending arrangement, may not be severable without impacting the contract’s fundamental nature.


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